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One dialogue, Protagoras , begins in dramatic form but quickly proceeds to Socrates' narration of a conversation he had previously with the sophist for whom the dialogue is named; this narration continues uninterrupted till the dialogue's end.
Two dialogues Phaedo and Symposium also begin in dramatic form but then proceed to virtually uninterrupted narration by followers of Socrates.
Phaedo , an account of Socrates' final conversation and hemlock drinking, is narrated by Phaedo to Echecrates in a foreign city not long after the execution took place.
Apollodorus assures his listener that he is recounting the story, which took place when he himself was an infant, not from his own memory, but as remembered by Aristodemus, who told him the story years ago.
The Theaetetus is a peculiar case: a dialogue in dramatic form embedded within another dialogue in dramatic form.
In the beginning of the Theaetetus ,  Euclides says that he compiled the conversation from notes he took based on what Socrates told him of his conversation with the title character.
The rest of the Theaetetus is presented as a "book" written in dramatic form and read by one of Euclides' slaves. Thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters the Epistles have traditionally been ascribed to Plato, though modern scholarship doubts the authenticity of at least some of these.
Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts.
The usual system for making unique references to sections of the text by Plato derives from a 16th-century edition of Plato's works by Henricus Stephanus known as Stephanus pagination.
One tradition regarding the arrangement of Plato's texts is according to tetralogies. No one knows the exact order Plato's dialogues were written in, nor the extent to which some might have been later revised and rewritten.
The works are usually grouped into Early sometimes by some into Transitional , Middle , and Late period. Whereas those classified as "early dialogues" often conclude in aporia, the so-called "middle dialogues" provide more clearly stated positive teachings that are often ascribed to Plato such as the theory of Forms.
The remaining dialogues are classified as "late" and are generally agreed to be difficult and challenging pieces of philosophy. This grouping is the only one proven by stylometric analysis.
The following represents one relatively common division. Increasingly in the most recent Plato scholarship, writers are sceptical of the notion that the order of Plato's writings can be established with any precision,  though Plato's works are still often characterized as falling at least roughly into three groups.
Early: Apology , Charmides , Crito , Euthyphro , Gorgias , Lesser Hippias minor , Greater Hippias major , Ion , Laches , Lysis , Protagoras.
Middle: Cratylus , Euthydemus , Meno , Parmenides , Phaedo , Phaedrus , Republic , Symposium , Theaetetus. A significant distinction of the early Plato and the later Plato has been offered by scholars such as E.
Dodds and has been summarized by Harold Bloom in his book titled Agon : "E. Dodds is the classical scholar whose writings most illuminated the Hellenic descent in The Greeks and the Irrational In his chapter on Plato and the Irrational Soul Dodds traces Plato's spiritual evolution from the pure rationalist of the Protagoras to the transcendental psychologist, influenced by the Pythagoreans and Orphics, of the later works culminating in the Laws.
Lewis Campbell was the first  to make exhaustive use of stylometry to prove the great probability that the Critias , Timaeus , Laws , Philebus , Sophist , and Statesman were all clustered together as a group, while the Parmenides , Phaedrus , Republic , and Theaetetus belong to a separate group, which must be earlier given Aristotle's statement in his Politics  that the Laws was written after the Republic ; cf.
What is remarkable about Campbell's conclusions is that, in spite of all the stylometric studies that have been conducted since his time, perhaps the only chronological fact about Plato's works that can now be said to be proven by stylometry is the fact that Critias , Timaeus , Laws , Philebus , Sophist , and Statesman are the latest of Plato's dialogues, the others earlier.
Protagoras is often considered one of the last of the "early dialogues". Three dialogues are often considered "transitional" or "pre-middle": Euthydemus , Gorgias , and Meno.
Proponents of dividing the dialogues into periods often consider the Parmenides and Theaetetus to come late in the middle period and be transitional to the next, as they seem to treat the theory of Forms critically Parmenides or only indirectly Theaetetus.
The first book of the Republic is often thought to have been written significantly earlier than the rest of the work, although possibly having undergone revisions when the later books were attached to it.
While looked to for Plato's "mature" answers to the questions posed by his earlier works, those answers are difficult to discern.
Some scholars  indicate that the theory of Forms is absent from the late dialogues, its having been refuted in the Parmenides , but there isn't total consensus that the Parmenides actually refutes the theory of Forms.
Jowett mentions in his Appendix to Menexenus, that works which bore the character of a writer were attributed to that writer even when the actual author was unknown.
The following works were transmitted under Plato's name, most of them already considered spurious in antiquity, and so were not included by Thrasyllus in his tetralogical arrangement.
These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi "spurious" or Apocrypha. Some known manuscripts of Plato survive. These sources are medieval manuscripts written on vellum mainly from 9th to 13th century AD Byzantium , papyri mainly from late antiquity in Egypt , and from the independent testimonia of other authors who quote various segments of the works which come from a variety of sources.
The text as presented is usually not much different from what appears in the Byzantine manuscripts, and papyri and testimonia just confirm the manuscript tradition.
In some editions however the readings in the papyri or testimonia are favoured in some places by the editing critic of the text. Reviewing editions of papyri for the Republic in , Slings suggests that the use of papyri is hampered due to some poor editing practices.
In the first century AD, Thrasyllus of Mendes had compiled and published the works of Plato in the original Greek, both genuine and spurious.
While it has not survived to the present day, all the extant medieval Greek manuscripts are based on his edition. The oldest surviving complete manuscript for many of the dialogues is the Clarke Plato Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39, or Codex Boleianus MS E.
Clarke 39 , which was written in Constantinople in and acquired by Oxford University in B contains the first six tetralogies and is described internally as being written by "John the Calligrapher" on behalf of Arethas of Caesarea.
It appears to have undergone corrections by Arethas himself. The oldest manuscript for the seventh tetralogy is Codex Vindobonensis To help establish the text, the older evidence of papyri and the independent evidence of the testimony of commentators and other authors i.
Many papyri which contain fragments of Plato's texts are among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The Oxford Classical Texts edition by Slings even cites the Coptic translation of a fragment of the Republic in the Nag Hammadi library as evidence.
During the early Renaissance, the Greek language and, along with it, Plato's texts were reintroduced to Western Europe by Byzantine scholars. In September or October Filippo Valori and Francesco Berlinghieri printed copies of Ficino's translation, using the printing press at the Dominican convent S.
Jacopo di Ripoli. The edition  of Plato's complete works published by Henricus Stephanus Henri Estienne in Geneva also included parallel Latin translation and running commentary by Joannes Serranus Jean de Serres.
It was this edition which established standard Stephanus pagination , still in use today. The Oxford Classical Texts offers the current standard complete Greek text of Plato's complete works.
In five volumes edited by John Burnet , its first edition was published —, and it is still available from the publisher, having last been printed in The Cambridge Greek and Latin Texts and Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries series includes Greek editions of the Protagoras , Symposium , Phaedrus , Alcibiades , and Clitophon , with English philological, literary, and, to an extent, philosophical commentary.
Dodds ' of the Gorgias , which includes extensive English commentary. The modern standard complete English edition is the Hackett Plato, Complete Works , edited by John M.
There is also the Clarendon Plato Series by Oxford University Press which offers English translations and thorough philosophical commentary by leading scholars on a few of Plato's works, including John McDowell 's version of the Theaetetus.
The most famous criticism of the Theory of Forms is the Third Man Argument by Aristotle in the Metaphysics. Plato had actually already considered this objection with the idea of "large" rather than "man" in the dialogue Parmenides , using the elderly Elean philosophers Parmenides and Zeno characters anachronistically to criticize the character of the younger Socrates who proposed the idea.
The dialogue ends in aporia. Many recent philosophers have diverged from what some would describe as the ontological models and moral ideals characteristic of traditional Platonism.
A number of these postmodern philosophers have thus appeared to disparage Platonism from more or less informed perspectives. Friedrich Nietzsche notoriously attacked Plato's "idea of the good itself" along with many fundamentals of Christian morality, which he interpreted as "Platonism for the masses" in one of his most important works, Beyond Good and Evil Martin Heidegger argued against Plato's alleged obfuscation of Being in his incomplete tome, Being and Time , and the philosopher of science Karl Popper argued in The Open Society and Its Enemies that Plato's alleged proposal for a utopian political regime in the Republic was prototypically totalitarian.
The Dutch historian of science Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis criticizes Plato, stating that he was guilty of "constructing an imaginary nature by reasoning from preconceived principles and forcing reality more or less to adapt itself to this construction.
Plato's Academy mosaic was created in the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii , around BC to CE. The School of Athens fresco by Raphael features Plato also as a central figure.
The Nuremberg Chronicle depicts Plato and other as anachronistic schoolmen. Plato's thought is often compared with that of his most famous student, Aristotle, whose reputation during the Western Middle Ages so completely eclipsed that of Plato that the Scholastic philosophers referred to Aristotle as "the Philosopher".
However, in the Byzantine Empire , the study of Plato continued. The only Platonic work known to western scholarship was Timaeus , until translations were made after the fall of Constantinople , which occurred during It is believed that Plethon passed a copy of the Dialogues to Cosimo de' Medici when in the Council of Ferrara , called to unify the Greek and Latin Churches, was adjourned to Florence, where Plethon then lectured on the relation and differences of Plato and Aristotle, and fired Cosimo with his enthusiasm;  Cosimo would supply Marsilio Ficino with Plato's text for translation to Latin.
During the early Islamic era, Persian and Arab scholars translated much of Plato into Arabic and wrote commentaries and interpretations on Plato's, Aristotle's and other Platonist philosophers' works see Al-Farabi , Avicenna , Averroes , Hunayn ibn Ishaq.
Many of these commentaries on Plato were translated from Arabic into Latin and as such influenced Medieval scholastic philosophers.
During the Renaissance , with the general resurgence of interest in classical civilization, knowledge of Plato's philosophy would become widespread again in the West.
Many of the greatest early modern scientists and artists who broke with Scholasticism and fostered the flowering of the Renaissance, with the support of the Plato-inspired Lorenzo grandson of Cosimo , saw Plato's philosophy as the basis for progress in the arts and sciences.
More problematic was Plato's belief in metempsychosis as well as his ethical views on polyamory and euthanasia in particular , which did not match those of Christianity.
It was Plethon's student Bessarion who reconciled Plato with Christian theology, arguing that Plato's views were only ideals, unattainable due to the fall of man.
By the 19th century, Plato's reputation was restored, and at least on par with Aristotle's. Notable Western philosophers have continued to draw upon Plato's work since that time.
Plato's influence has been especially strong in mathematics and the sciences. Plato's resurgence further inspired some of the greatest advances in logic since Aristotle, primarily through Gottlob Frege and his followers Kurt Gödel , Alonzo Church , and Alfred Tarski.
Albert Einstein suggested that the scientist who takes philosophy seriously would have to avoid systematization and take on many different roles, and possibly appear as a Platonist or Pythagorean, in that such a one would have "the viewpoint of logical simplicity as an indispensable and effective tool of his research.
The political philosopher and professor Leo Strauss is considered by some as the prime thinker involved in the recovery of Platonic thought in its more political, and less metaphysical, form.
Strauss' political approach was in part inspired by the appropriation of Plato and Aristotle by medieval Jewish and Islamic political philosophers , especially Maimonides and Al-Farabi , as opposed to the Christian metaphysical tradition that developed from Neoplatonism.
Deeply influenced by Nietzsche and Heidegger, Strauss nonetheless rejects their condemnation of Plato and looks to the dialogues for a solution to what all three latter day thinkers acknowledge as 'the crisis of the West.
Quine dubbed the problem of negative existentials " Plato's beard ". Noam Chomsky dubbed the problem of knowledge Plato's problem.
One author calls the definist fallacy the Socratic fallacy . More broadly, platonism sometimes distinguished from Plato's particular view by the lowercase refers to the view that there are many abstract objects.
Still to this day, platonists take number and the truths of mathematics as the best support in favour of this view.
Most mathematicians think, like platonists, that numbers and the truths of mathematics are perceived by reason rather than the senses yet exist independently of minds and people, that is to say, they are discovered rather than invented.
Contemporary platonism is also more open to the idea of there being infinitely many abstract objects, as numbers or propositions might qualify as abstract objects, while ancient Platonism seemed to resist this view, possibly because of the need to overcome the problem of "the One and the Many".
Thus e. However, he repeatedly does support the idea that there are Forms of artifacts, e. Contemporary platonism also tends to view abstract objects as unable to cause anything, but it is unclear whether the ancient Platonists felt this way.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Plato disambiguation and Platon disambiguation. Classical Greek Athenian philosopher, founder of Platonism.
Roman copy of a portrait bust by Silanion for the Academia in Athens c. Athens , Greece. Apology Crito Euthyphro Meno Parmenides Phaedo Phaedrus Republic Symposium Timaeus.
Metaphysics Ethics Politics Epistemology Aesthetics Soul Love Mathematics Language Education Cosmology Eschatology.
Platonic philosophy Innatism Theory of forms Idealism. Socrates Pythagoras Parmenides Heraclitus Cratylus the Sophists Eleusinian Mysteries Orphism Diotima  Theaetetus Theodorus Homer Hesiod.
Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy and religion , especially Platonism , including Aristotle , Speusippus and Xenocrates , Academic skepticism , Middle Platonism , Philo , Plotinus and Neoplatonism , Augustine and Christian Platonism , Boethius , Islamic Platonism and Isma'ilism , Gemistus Pletho , Florentine Academy and Renaissance Platonism , Cambridge Platonism , Modern Platonism.
Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Main article: Early life of Plato. Assignment to the elements in Kepler 's Mysterium Cosmographicum.
Heraclitus by Hendrick ter Brugghen. See also: Socratic problem. See also: List of speakers in Plato's dialogues. Main article: Allegorical interpretations of Plato.
See also: List of manuscripts of Plato's dialogues. Philosophy portal. According to Favorinus, Ariston, Plato's family, and his family were sent by Athens to settle as cleruchs colonists retaining their Athenian citizenship , on the island of Aegina, from which the Spartans expelled them after Plato's birth there.
Jens Halfwassen states in Der Aufstieg zum Einen' that "Plotinus' ontology—which should be called Plotinus' henology —is a rather accurate philosophical renewal and continuation of Plato's unwritten doctrine, i.
Montoriola , p. A more detailed analysis is given by Krämer Another description is by Reale and Reale A thorough analysis of the consequences of such an approach is given by Szlezak Another supporter of this interpretation is the German philosopher Karl Albert , cf.
Albert or Albert Hans-Georg Gadamer is also sympathetic towards it, cf. Grondin and Gadamer Gadamer's final position on the subject is stated in Gadamer This is in accordance with the practice in the specialized literature, in which it is common to find that the terms allegory and myth are used as synonyms.
Nevertheless, there is a trend among modern scholars to use the term myth and avoid the term allegory, as it is considered more appropriate to modern interpretation of Plato's writings.
One of the first to initiate this trend was the Oxford University professor John Alexander Stewart , in his work The Myths of Plato.
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McGraw Hill. Collaboratively developed, it was initially meant to be just a tool to help validate moves in word-based games, but it subsequently replaced basically all other freely available dictionaries used in free software projects.
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